Thursday, May 21, 2020
In Giles MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Samurai William, the reader is taken to the other side of the globe to experience the history of old world Japan. Though out the book, Milton provides reason for complex historical events and actions, while still communicating the subtleties and mysterious customs of the Japanese. The novel also closely examines the wide range of relationships between different groups of Europeans and Asians, predominantly revolving around the protagonist, William Adams. The book documents the successes and failures that occur between the two civilizations, then links them back to either the positive or negative relationship they have. As the book goes on, the correlation is obvious. Milton shows us the extreme role that religion,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦All of these things were found by the Japanese to be incredibly rude and insulting and they took the Europeans for barbarians. On the other hand, it was the Europeans who looked upon the Japanese as backwards in their thinking. There were incredibly complex aspects of the country. Samurais were known to test their swords on criminals by chopping their bodies to bits; casual violence was no need for alarm here. There were subtle things like how they wore long strips of silk draped around their bodies held only in place by a knotted rope; they tweezed the hairs from their faces and wore their hair in oily buns on the tops of their heads. All of these differences could have very well been the negative road block that would have stopped all progress in the relations between the two civilisations. Alessandro Valignano was quick to recognise this potential disaster. He ordered that his Jesuits live like natives to create harmony and understanding. He wrote a manual for them to follow with all the behaviours this foreign country was built upon. He also encouraged them to Ã¢â¬Å"think and behave as though they were Japanese, to act with dignity and stoic decorumÃ¢â¬ . In turn, the Jesuits became accustom to the way of life of the Japanese, and found themselves to be much more successful in their relationships with them. When William Adams came to the Land of the Rising sun, he was at first incredibly homesickShow MoreRelatedLegacy of the Samurai: The characteristics, philosophy, and history of the samurai.2585 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesLEGACY OF THE SAMURAI _The characteristics, philosophy,_ _and history of the samurai._ For seven centuries, the samurai ruled Japan as the powerful warrior class. As a class of warriors and knights, they led society in feudal Japan. The loyalty to his lord was much more important than his allegiance to his friends, family and even the emperor. Their philosophy was one liberated him from fear, and for these reasons, the samurai came to be the dominate force throughout medieval Japan. War playedRead More Meiji Restoration Essay1958 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesemployed his teachings to their samurai. Further understanding the moral education provided through Confucianism becomes a key element to realizing the difficulties present in realizing modernization; however, it is important to note that Confucianism is not fully culpable for the delayed realization of mandatory modernization. Throughout the various themes presented in The Analects, there are some particular teachings implicit within Japans feudalistic samurai society. The general discussion ofRead MoreHow Did The Modernization Of Japan During The Meiji Era Affect The Popularity Of Noh Theatre?3409 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesJapan it is important to understand the theatrical functions of it as well as who is the audience. Commentary and a biography from well-renowned Noh actor Umewaka is examined to better answer the question. With the decline of the popularity of the samurai, Noh began to lose its viewership and its patrons, resulting in many actors forfeiting their trade and assume another job. By the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s Noh Theatre had died out as a practice, except for the dedication of a select few. Eventually Noh TheatreRead MoreNeuromancer a Book Written by William Gibson670 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNeuromancer The book Ã¢â¬Å"NeuromancerÃ¢â¬ was written in 1984 and it has blown away the thought barriers with the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s technology implementation. It was written by a well-known author that goes by the name of William Gibson. In the book we find ourselves in a futuristic Japan where arcades, hacking, drugs, sex, violence, splicing, and technology has taken over. This is not the Japan we know today, or is it? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world Japan is very much up there with technology. The way the author describesRead MoreRevenge Is A Dish Best Served Cold Essay1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiscussed and portrayed in a multitude of manners throughout literature, film, and live theater. Two playwrights that tackle the matter of revenge are Zeami Motokiyo and the famous William Shakespeare. MotokiyoÃ¢â¬â¢s play Astumori takes quite an artistic approach to the idea, telling a one-act play from the perspective of a samurai who is feeling guilty for killing a young opponent on the field of battle. He seeks cleansing for his guilty soul, putting him, potentially, on the receiving end of revenge. ShakespeareRead More Shaping Identity in William Gibsons Neuromancer Essay2077 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesShaping Identity in William Gibsons Neuromancer The number Ã¢â¬Å"oneÃ¢â¬ is not a thing. Math has no definitive reality. Numbers are a social construct, a system of symbols designed to express the abstractions through which properly developed societies explain aspects of reality. It follows that, as humanity seeks to understand more of what it is to exist, bigger numbers are needed. Soon, we need machines to understand the numbers. Society plants a base on information technology, efficiency, andRead MoreModern-Day Adaptations of Shakespearian Plays3263 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesprototypical Japanese male would not have this problem. Nishi, Kurosawas Hamlet, is too Japanese. He is a down to earth realist. He is unfeeling and cold. He will do anything to exact his revenge. He is smart and meticulous. His stark upholding of Samurai values takes away his humanity. Nishis problem is that he is too unfeeling and unemotional. Nishi is not the one who is fooled by the appearances of others. It is Nishi who tricks everyone else. He knows how to play with peoples emotions. InsteadRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Bridge Over A Pond Of Water Lilies 1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinspiration were visible. The Chinese area had many dynasties of artwork, ranging from ceramics to traditional clothing. The Korean area was more simplistic and showed more of an appreciation for nature. The Japanese area had pieces of history, such as samurai armor, woven throughout the screens and few scrolls. The Southeast Asian area had many ceramic objects that had once been used for special ceremonies. The Himalayan area often referenced the Maitreya Buddha and had a mandala made from sand. And finallyRead MoreThe Effects Of Gun Control On Our Society Essay1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageson three issues: background checks for buyers, laws regulating who can carry weapons in public, and the kinds of guns that are available for purchaseÃ¢ â¬ (Junior Scholastic). The current process to obtain a firearm is according to an interview with William Pulsone is; Ã¢â¬Å"the first thing you have to do is go through a gun safety courseÃ¢â¬ ¦which teaches you the different style of firearms, and some of the laws in the area that you live in. And at the end of the course there is a test, and if you pass thenRead MoreReflection of Modern East Asia887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinterests which shaped Japan, China and Korea to what they are today. We examined the paradigm of pre-modern Japanese governance, the Shogunate, and the trained warriors which defended lord and land, Samurai. In addition, we examined the socio-economic classes of Medieval Japan, which included the Samurai, peasants, craftsmen, and the merchants. We also examined pre-1945 JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s policies toward foreign entities, notably the Sakoku Policy, which sought to expunge all foreign presence and commerce in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Cuban Revolution was an event that sparked change among Latin America. This change was a first of its kind, since the Western Hemisphere had primarily been democratic. Relations with other countries close by and far, improved or declined rapidly depending on the government and its ideals. Latin America countries had internal struggles which they would decide to follow Cuba or stay in favorable relations with the United States. Countries such as Honduras, Guatemala and Colombia seem to have been the most impacted by the Cuban Revolution. The Cuban Revolution began not with Fidel CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s takeover, but with Sergeant Fulgencio BatistaÃ¢â¬â¢s power hungry struggle. In fear of losing the 1952 election, Batista took over the country and eliminated them. Many people were disgusted, even offended that Batista would do such a thing. This is what sparked Fidel Castro s hatred toward the Batista regime. He began plotting BatistaÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall, later having the help of Ernesto Ã ¢â¬Å"CheÃ¢â¬ Guevara. July 26, 1953 is a day that shall live in infamy in the Cuban history. It is the day in which Castro made his first move. He gathered a group of about 138 men to attack the Moncada compound. He believed that a surprise attack would be more successful due to the lack of weapons at hand. This proved to be rather untrue, since many of the men were captured. Federal soldiers were killed, amounting to about 19 deaths. The rebels that were left were either shot or managed to escape. Fidel and RaulShow MoreRelatedNeo-Colonialism In Latin America Essay1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the 50 years after gaining independence, European influence played an essential role in the growth of Latin America. Latin American elites managed to open free-trade among other countries such as the United States and Great Britain. This influx of trade expedited the Industrial Revolution allowing South America to trade with other countries more efficiently, thus, marking the start of Neo -Colonialism. Neo-Colonialism is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the economic and political policies by which a great power indirectlyRead MoreResearch Paper on Che Guevara4218 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesTable of contents Introduction 2 Revolution 3 ChÃ © GuevaraÃ¢â¬â¢s existence, and relationship with revolution 4 The Cuban Revolution 8 The Influence of ChÃ © Guevara on Latin America 12 Conclusion 17 Bibliography 18 Introduction I decided to write this research paper because we were assigned to find an issue or subject within Latin America to write about. One of the most widely known and influential revolutionary figure in the history of Latin America is ChÃ © Guevara. ChÃ © knew how to useRead MoreGKT Task 12406 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesprocess of diffusion of cultures, technological advancements and resources specific to certain cultures. Ã¯ââ" Due to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical location of mountains, desserts, and jungles to the south, west and north, China was unable to intermingle with other cultures. Ã¯ââ" The Silk Road was constructed to aid the Han Dynasty of China with political contact with other kingdoms of Central Asia. Since itÃ¢â¬â¢s construction it has evolved into a central trading route between China and the western world. This gaveRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesTiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Read MorePaper Exam 2 History Ib9416 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesrequires further substantiation. Critical commentary may be present. An attempt to place events in historical context and show an understanding of historical processes. An attempt at a structured approach, either chronological or thematic has been made. 10Ã¢â¬â12: Answers indicate that the question is understood but not all implications considered. Knowledge is largely accurate. Critical commentary may be present. Events are generally placed in context and understanding of historical processes, such as comparisonRead MoreEssay about Recognizing and Shaping Opportunities19389 Words Ã |Ã 78 Pagesinfringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860 rP os t 1 INTRODUCTION Chance favors only the prepared mind. Ã¢â¬âLouis Pasteur Ã¢â¬Å"I would really like to be an entrepreneur . . . if only I had a great idea.Ã¢â¬ This is a common refrain among aspiring entrepreneurs. It might seem that ideas for innovative products and services are out there, just waiting to be discovered by the lucky few. But as Louis Pasteur recognized more than a century ago, we must actually set ourselves up to beRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words Ã |Ã 319 Pageslate twentieth century, its apparatus of cultural formation was controlled fully by the elite who, to a large extent, ran the educational apparatus and the economic system. But much of the country was beginning to question in earnest the structure of colonial society by the early 1930s. The emergence of Rasta during that period corresponds with so much that was happening around the world. Rastas could tell that social unrest in Jamaica was going to lead to a movement away from colonial rule andRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesreproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text. Copyright Ã © 2013, 2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopyingRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesappear on appropriate page within text. Copyright Ã © 2011, 2007, 2005, 2002, 1998 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying
Electronic Surveillance has been part of Americans framework since the invention of the telephone. Employers utilize a variety of electronic surveillance devices and other means of obtaining information. These devices are computer monitoring, video surveillance, investigators, spying, and eavesdropping/wiretapping as well as other means. We will write a custom essay sample on Electronic Surveillance at the Workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now Most employers have a valid reason for using one or more surveillance devices to either monitor their employees for business purposes such as for training, quality assurance and customer service and others use it monitor customers and employee integrity from theft and fraud. Early on in the electronic age legislation was created to protect our civil liberties from being violated and pried upon by the federal government, police, employers and the general public this legislation was known as the Omnibus Crime Control and safe Streets Act and later amended to the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of (ECPA) 1986 which governs third-party interceptions of electronic communications. The questions that employees have in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s work place is if they have any expectation of privacy, when and where my conversations can be deemed private, do employers have the right to eavesdrop on conversations while I am in the workplace and to what extent can they go. Today information about hundreds of thousands of things surround us, it hits us from every direction, the television in morning broadcast the daily news, radio personalities during your commute to work was well as conversations from people passing you by on the street or in the supermarket. While in the workplace were can an employee expect to have privacy within that environment? Employees should expect a limited amount of privacy based on their surroundings. The Supreme Court of California recently held that: Ã¢â¬Å"In an office or other workplace to which the general public does not have unfettered access, employees may enjoy a limited, but legitimate, xpectation that their conversations and other interactions will not be secretly videotaped by undercover television reporters, even though those conversations may not have been completely private from the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ coworkersÃ¢â¬ . 1 Therefore an employees should expect a degree of privacy while in the workplace, conversations held outside of the ear-shot of others boundaries have been set for a private conversation. Altman 1975; Derlega and Chaikin 1977, suggest that two interacting parties will attempt to set boundaries that meet their individual goals as well as their collective interest. 2 In an office setting there are typically two types of workspaces, and open area, in which there are several desks and conversations can be overheard or there are enclosed offices, in whichÃ¢â¬âwhen the door is closed conversations cannot be heard. State and Federal laws have granted employers a wide latitude of control over the workplace environment as it pertains privacy. Tile 18 of the U. S. Code which encompasses the Electronic Communication Privacy Act (ECPA) states that Ã¢â¬Å"it shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception unless such communication is intercepted f or the purpose of committing any criminal or tortuous act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any StateÃ¢â¬ . In short, conversations in the workplace place must be of a business nature and one of the parties to the conversation must give consent to have that conversation recorded or monitored. Mark Renfro a Insurance Counselor at GEICO stated Ã¢â¬Å"That conversations held in an open area at work would have little to no privacy rights because anyone can hear your conversation, but on the other hand if the situation were to be that the conversations were to be held out of ear-shot of others in a remote location where it is him and someone else or behind closed doors that conversations would be viewed as privateÃ¢â¬ . In the video clip, did the sales manager Herman have sufficient grounds for utilizing electronic surveillance in order to determine if his sales people are honest? As the manager Herman is ultimately responsible for the daily operation of the business and needs to know if his sales team operates with integrity when presenting information to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s patrons. Salesp eople that state miss information about products could potentially cause businesses money in current or future sale, lawsuits and future customer business. Thus, he does have sufficient grounds to use electronic surveillance to monitor his sales teamÃ¢â¬â¢s conversations with customers because they occur during the normal course of business. So now to what extent can employers engage in monitoring its employees? Under Tile 18 of the U. S. Code, guidelines have been established as to what, when, and where electronic surveillance can be conducted. First and foremost it must be a legitimate business purpose. There are typically 4 types of monitoring employers use: telephone; computer; e-mail/voice mail and video monitoring. All forms of monitoring have stringent requirements employers need to follow: Telephone monitoring is used to monitor business on business phones with clients or customers for quality control reasons and in most states is required to inform that the conversation is recorded or monitored. An import note to this would be that calls that are deemed to be of a personal nature are not allowed to be monitored from any phone not specified as business phones. Computer monitoring is used mostly to monitor employee sites visited on the World Wide Web to ensure unprofessional or unethical site are being viewed within the workplace. In addition employers want to ensure the safety of its network from viruses and Trojan horses that could infect its system and bring business to a halt. Electronic mail falls under the same guidelines as computer monitoring. E-mail systems uses company computers and have the restrictions. Lastly, video monitoring is used a deterrent to theft and security of the business and its employees. Currently, federal law does not require disclosure to employees. Video monitoring is unlawful to be used in bathrooms, lock rooms and dressing rooms or any public rooms were a reasonable person would consider a private. Determining whether the inclusion of innocence of unaware third parties has when being monitored and any legal grounds. Unfortunately, Title 18 only requires the consent from one party to be lawful and therefore an unaware third party could not be innocent. Although Cathy Goodwin states Ã¢â¬Å" consumer privacy is violated when information is gathered or used without consumer consent or when a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s private space is violated by unwanted consumer communicationsÃ¢â¬ How to cite Electronic Surveillance at the Workplace, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Research Paper on Ã¢â¬ËCrime and PunishmentÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay Ã¢â¬ËCrime and PunishmentÃ¢â¬â¢ by Dostoevsky Analysis Ã¢â¬Å"Crime and PunishmentÃ¢â¬ is one of Fyodor DostoevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s most significant works. It is a tale of murder and desperation, sin and guilt, atonement and hopelessness. It is a story of one way Ã¢â¬â from sins to the day of reckoning. Human nature is always balancing on the verge of shadow and light. Sometimes it is a saint, but sometimes it is ready for a sin. The black color of evil and flaw is often confronted with white color of good and righteousness. Every soul is prepared to make a step to cross this thin verge and to kill, to steal, to forget about Christian way of life and Ã¢â¬â as a result Ã¢â¬â to lose moral cleanliness. Christianity is sure to be a behavioral discipline with particular moral code. Such sins as murder, lying, greed, stealing are so usual for people, that sometimes they even donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel guilty, donÃ¢â¬â¢t regret. It is the main fault in Christendom because God is sure to forgive every penitent sinner. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Ã¢â¬ËCrime and PunishmentÃ¢â¬â¢ specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Ã¢â¬ËCrime and PunishmentÃ¢â¬â¢ specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Ã¢â¬ËCrime and PunishmentÃ¢â¬â¢ specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The idea of the novel, as far as I can see, is to show a broad world structure, a structure of the psychological world of mind, a fabric of society and to depict their role in creating and destroying an individual small world of a person. Fyodor Dostoyevsky describes skillfully the deeply human drama of Raskolnikov, a sensitive intellectual driven by poverty and the belief of his exemption from the moral law. The author provides a provocative look at the human motivations of obsession and possession with unflinching philosophical and ethical insight. The critics commonly declared that in Raskolnikov, Dostoevsky had affronted all students and that the character was a madman whom Dostoevsky attempted to portray as typical of the younger generation. Dostoevsky described the contemporary social reality. It is necessary to admit that RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s murdering of the old moneylender was the result of his dire poverty and that, in fact, RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s position in society left him no alternative but murder and robbery if he were to keep body and soul together, and eventually realize his tremendous natural abilities Raskolnikov Ã¢â¬â a young man of middle-class origin who is living in need expelled from the university. From superficial and weak thinking, having been influenced by specific Ã¢â¬Å"unfinishedÃ¢â¬ ideas in the air, he decides to get himself out of a difficult situation quickly by killing an old woman, a usurer, and widow of a government servant. The old woman is crazy, deaf, sick, greedy, and evil. She charges immoral rates of interest, devours the well-being of others, and, having reduced her younger sister to the state of a servant, oppresses her with work. She is good for nothing. Ã¢â¬Å"Why does she live?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Is she useful to anyone at all?Ã¢â¬ These and other questions carry the young man. A typical for all times and all generationsÃ¢â¬â¢ dream Ã¢â¬â to be wealthy and happy Ã¢â¬â makes Raskolnikov sin against the lows of society and the lows of Christianity. He decides to kill and rob the old moneylender to make his mother, who is living in the provinces, happy. He wishes to save his sister from the libidinous importunities of the head of the estate where s he is serving as a ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s companion. Then he wants to finish his studies, go abroad and be for the rest of his life honest, firm, and unflinching in fulfilling his humanitarian duty toward humankind. According to him, this would Ã¢â¬Å"make up for the crime.Ã¢â¬ After the act, the psychological process of the crime unfolds. Questions which he cannot resolve well up in the murderer; feelings he had not foreseen or suspected torment his heart. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth and natural law take their toll, and he feels forced at last to give himself up. He is forced even if it means dying in prison, so that he may once again be part of the people. The feeling of separation and isolation from humankind, nature, and the law of truth take their toll. The criminal decides to accept suffering to redeem his deed. Ã¢â¬Å"Crime and PunishmentÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the title of this novel is sure to contain the main idea of the DostoevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Therefore, this grand psychological human drama shows not a single individual fall, but numerous: every person in this novel is paying for his or her flaw. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we can observe this book as an extended gallery of miserable payers to Fate or Heaven. The old moneylender had paid for her greed and immorality. Raskolnikov Ã¢â¬â the tool of Heaven to punish the greedy old pawnbroker Ã¢â¬â had paid for his proud and murder. Other persons in the novel were paying for their fear and weakness to change something in their lives with endless unhappiness and hopelessness. Here is a realistic and straightforward DostoevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s world outlook: everything in our lives depends on our moral power and ability to make the last straw of suffering the first step to the light, not to the darkness of crimes because God can see everything and he pays for our deeds. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why any day of your life can turn into the Day of reckoning. Sources:
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Canada and the French/English Relationship essays In this paper, I will be trying to determine whether the Official Languages Act (OLA) is an adequate reflection of the French/English relations in Canada. By examining what the purpose of the Act is and also by examining the relationship of French and English in Canada, I will try to conclude whether or not the Act has had a positive or negative effect on the country since it was passed. Therefore the purpose of my paper will be to present the purpose of the Official Languages Act, and its effect on Canada, provide a brief, yet precise accounting of the relationship between the two official languages of our country, and determine the position of the OLA as it relates to the French/English relationship in Canada. Canada and the French/English Relationship The confrontation between French and English has been evident since the beginning of our country. Ever since the conquest of the British over the French, the French have been seen as the minority in this province. With such acts as the Quebec Act of 1774 and the Constitutional Act of 1791, it was apparent that the English were the dominant culture in this province. Again with the now famous Lord Durham Report, in which he recommended the assimilation of the French peoples, we have seen a very tense situation in Quebec. During the following 150 years since the conquest, there has been a steady dispute of language in our country. Language disputes are not new to Quebec, yet it is not until recently that they have become a focus in the minds of citizens, as French Canadians feel that they are in danger of losing their culture. According to Sheila Mcleod Arnopoulos, (author of The English Fact in Quebec, 1984)"Ever since 1967, language conflict has been at the forefront of Quebec politics." In the past, the main differences between the French and the English were social and economic rather than linguistic. English and French coexisted on the same territory, but it was only ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Definition of the Bona Fide Occupational Qualification A bona fide occupational qualification, also known as BFOQ, is a characteristic or attribute required for a job that could be considered discrimination if it were not necessary to perform the job in question, or if the job were unsafe for one category of people but not another. To determine if a policy in hiring or job assignment is discriminatory or legal, the policy is examined to ascertain whether the discrimination is necessary to the normal business operation and whether that category denied inclusion is uniquely unsafe. Exception to Discrimination Under Title VII, employers are not allowed toÃ discriminateÃ on the basis of sex,Ã race, religion,Ã or national origin. If religion, sex, or national origin can be shown to be necessary for the job, such as hiring Catholic professors to teach Catholic theology at a Catholic school, then a BFOQ exception can be made.Ã Ã The BFOQ exception does not permit discrimination on the basis of race. The employer must prove that the BFOQ is reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the business or whether the BFOQ is for a unique safety reason. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) extended this concept of BFOQ to discriminationÃ based on age. Examples A restroom attendant can be hired taking into account sex because the users of the restroom have privacy rights.Ã In 1977, the Supreme Court upheld the policy in a male maximum security prison requiring guards to be male. A womenÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing catalog could hire only female models to wear womenÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes and the company would have a BFOQ defense for its sex discrimination. Being female would be a bona fide occupational qualification of the modeling job or an acting job for a specific role. However, hiring only men as managers or only women as teachers would not be a legal application of a BFOQ defense. Being a certain gender is not a BFOQ for the vast majority of jobs. Why Is This Concept Important? BFOQ is important to feminism and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s equality. Feminists of the 1960s and other decades successfully challenged stereotypical ideas that limited women to certain professions. This often meant reexamining ideas about job requirements, which created more opportunities for women in the workplace. Johnson Controls Supreme Court decision:Ã International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW) v. Johnson Controls, 886 F.2d 871 (7th Cir. 1989) In this case, Johnson Controls denied certain jobs to women but not to men, using the bona fide occupational qualification argument.Ã The jobs in question involved exposure to lead that could harm fetuses; women were routinely denied those jobs (whether pregnant or not). The appellate court ruled in favor of the company, finding that the plaintiffs had not offered an alternative that would protect a womans or a fetus health, and also that there was not evidenced that a fathers exposure to lead was a risk to the fetus. The Supreme Court held that, on the basis of the Pregnancy Discrimination in Employment Act of 1978 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the policy was discriminatory and that ensuring fetal safety was at the core of the employees job performance, not essential to be employed in the work of making batteries.Ã The Court found that it was up to the company to provide safety guidelines and inform about risk, and up to workers (parents) to determine risk and take action. Justice Scalia in a concurring opinion also raised the issue of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, protecting employees from being treated differently if pregnant. The case is considered a landmark for womens rights because otherwise so many industrial jobs could be denied to women where there is a risk to fetal health.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Chinua Achebes Africa - Essay Example They live almost entirely on yams, which are considered a manÃ¢â¬â¢s crop, but they also ate things that the women grew such as fruits and vegetables. The people in the village are very much like people everywhere else - there are many who work very hard and are respected and there are others, like Okonkwo's father Unoka who would rather spend their time entertaining others. But the common practice of the tribes was to indiscriminately cut down the virgin forests and exploit the resources of the land in the same way that the white man wanted to exploit the resources of the land. In this way, they aren't really that much different than the white men who come in toward the end of the book. It seems like that is the major message Achebe was trying to get across about the people in his book - that whether they were black or white, they were all the same underneath. Just like the white men, the black men of the village work and struggle to eke out a survival in a harsh land. It is becau se the land is so difficult instead of any lack of personal development that forces the society to base social status on each man's success as a farmer. Unoka is proof that a friendlier land that didn't make it so difficult to grow things would have led to a more artistically developed society.